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There are no unedited/unprocessed images. Every digital camera uses built in algorithms to turn the recorded data into an image. Especially the smart phone cameras do that. A lot of the perceived image quality is based on the software used to create these images.
Even the human eye uses things like light sensitivity adjustments and processing algorithms to turn the light falling on the retina into an actual image. And that's before the brain kicks in and performs its own picture enhancements.
So, saying a picture is edited is like saying, "hey, you used light to take that picture".
Since I have been mentioned in the previous reply, I sort of feel compelled to comment, too, but I don't want to turn this into a political debate.
So, I'll just summarise my thoughts like this: "all my love and respect goes towards people, not national symbols".
You know, especially where I come from (geographically), flags and other national symbols have been used and abused by horrible people to do unspeakably horrible things. And as if that wasn't bad enough, at the moment this method is returning.
My apologies, if I came or come across disrespectfully, as no disrespect whatsoever is intended.
One thing to keep in mind, when using a backpack, is to have a comfortable strap attached to the camera, because removing/storing the camera in the backpack gets tiresome pretty quickly. So most likely it will stay out for longer stretches of your "expeditions".
Both the D500 and the D610 offer two slots for memory cards, right? Can't you create backups right in the camera this way, as in saving the same exposure to both cards in the same format?
If this works, you could load up on memory cards instead of using another device that needs cables and electricity to work. Even if you run out of memory cards during the trip, they're probably easier to come by than another hard drive that works without a computer.
Depending on your travel arrangements and internet access, transferring everything to the iPad and than upload the pictures to a cloud storage service like Dropbox might also be an alternative (or an additional way of keeping everything safe).
Another way to get rid of the automatic download to iPhoto is to start the application "image capture" when the card is in the card reader. Then click on the small triangular arrow on the lower left of the application window and adjust the settings there for which program should be opened when connecting this camera.
Excuse me for being so blunt or maybe ignorant or even rude...
Literally or figuratively?
I mean, I'm somewhat colour-blind and find this to be quite a handicap sometimes in respect to photography (and many other small things in live), but I can't really comprehend what this would mean, if you're being literal about "blind".
Sincere apologies for any offense and hoping that I'm just not getting you're English sense of humor (which actually is sort of expected from a german...).
(...feeling bad already, but too curious not to hit "Post")
Most probably it would be helpful to know, which lens the camera came with actually. There have been different kits for the D3100, so there are different lenses that can be called "kit lens".
Apart from that, at least when you use Nikon's own software (e.g. Capture NX-D) for editing the images, you should also be able to have a look at the settings you used, when you took the exposure.
Also, the way you're describing your results, it sounds a little like you let the camera choose which focus point(s) to use. If you for example you switch to P-Mode, you should be able to adjust this behavior by pressing the "i"-button and moving to the focus area selection with the arrow keys. There you can select if the autofocus should try to pick the best spot from an area or just use a single spot for measurement.
If you're not sure, if focus has been acquired, you can also switch to the AF-S mode (single focussing action) and switch on the camera "beep". So, every time focussing is finished, the camera will respond with a short beep... and the shutter won't release until focus actually has been acquired.
If you haven't got it along with the camera, getting the manual might be a good idea, to look these things up: